HomeProductsOptomechanicsOptomechanical DevicesGalvo Mirror Systems: Beam Diameter

Galvo Mirror Systems: Beam Diameter


Small Beam Diameter Scanning Galvo Mirror Systems

  • For Small (< 5 mm) Beam Diameters
  • Choice of Mirror Coatings
  • 1D and 2D Kits Available
  • Easy Integration into OEM Systems
  • Analog Control Electronics


  • Single- and Dual-Axis Systems
  • Moving Magnet Motor Design for Faster Response
  • High-Precision Optical Mirror Position Detection
  • Analog PD Control Electronics with Current Damping
    and Error Limiter
  • Choice of Mirror Coatings:
    • Protected Silver (GVS001 and GVS002)
      500 nm to 2.0 µm
    • Protected Gold (GVS101 and GVS102)
      800 nm to 20.0 µm
    • Broadband Dielectric E02 (GVS201 and GVS202)
      400 nm to 750 nm
    • High-Power Dual-Band K13 (GVS301 and GVS302)
      532 and 1064 nm
  • Custom Coatings (e.g., Aluminum) Available upon Request

These high-speed Scanning Galvanometer Mirror Positioning Systems are designed for integration into OEM or custom laser beam steering applications that utilize laser beams smaller than 5 mm in diameter. Each system includes a single- or dual-axis galvo motor and mirror assembly, associated driver card(s), and driver card heatsink(s). A low noise, linear PSU (GPS011) and motor/mirror assembly heatsink (GHS003) are available separately.


Key Specifications
Max Beam Diameter 5 mm
2-Axis System Beam Offset 10 mm
Wavelength Range
(Ravg > 95%)
GVS00x: 500 nm - 2.0 µm
GVS10x: 800 nm - 20.0 µm
GVS20x: 400 nm - 750 nm
GVS30x: 532 nm and 1064 nm
Repeatability 15 μrad
Damage Threshold
GVS00x (Silver)
GVS10x (Gold)
GVS20x (E02)
GVS30x (K13)

3 J/cm2 at 1064 nm, 10 ns pulse
2 J/cm2 at 1064 nm, 10 ns pulse
0.25 J/cm2 at 532 nm, 10 ns pulse
5 J/cm2 at 1064 nm, 10 ns pulse
Linearity 99.9%
Max Scan Angle
(Mechanical Angle)
(w/ 0.8 V/deg scaling)
Full Scale Bandwidth DC to 100 Hz Sq wave,
DC to 250 Hz Sine wave
Small Angle (±0.2°) Bandwidth DC to 1 kHz
Small Angle Step Response 300 µs
Optical Position Sensor Output 40 to 80 µA
Power Supply Requirements ±15 to ±18 VDC


Galvo Motor/Mirror Assembly
The galvo consists of a galvanometer-based scanning motor with an optical mirror mounted on the shaft and a detector that provides positional feedback to the control board. The moving magnet design for the GVS series of galvanometer motors was chosen over a stationary magnet and rotating coil design in order to provide the fastest response times and the highest system resonant frequency. The position of the mirror is encoded using an optical sensing system located inside of the motor housing.

Due to the large angular acceleration of the rotation shaft, the size, shape and inertia of the mirrors become significant factors in the design of high performance galvo systems. Furthermore, the mirror must remain rigid (flat) even when subjected to large accelerations. All these factors have been precisely balanced in our galvo systems in order to match the characteristics of the galvo motor and maximize performance of the system.

The mirrors are available from stock with silver, gold, broadband or high power dual band coatings. Custom coatings (e.g., aluminum) are available on request.


Scanning Galvo Mirror Assembly and Driver Board
All Thorlabs scanning galvo mirror systems feature a mounted single or dual axis mirror/motor assembly and driver card(s). Shown to the left is the GVS301 1D galvo mirror and driver card with heatsink. The mirror assembly feature multiple mounting holes and a rotatable collar mount for the mirror/motor. These small 5 mm galvo mirrors feature a plug style connector to the mirror assembly. Please see below for additional mounting options and accessories.

Servo Driver Board (All Systems)
The Proportional Derivative (PD) servo driver circuit interprets the signals from the optical position detecting system inside the motor and then produces the drive voltage required to rotate the mirror to the desired position. The scanner uses a non-integrating, Class 0 servo that is ideal for use in applications that require vector positioning (e.g., laser marking), raster positioning (printing or scanning laser microscopy), and some step-and-hold applications. Furthermore, the proportional derivative controller gives excellent dynamic performance. The circuit includes an additional current term to ensure stability at high accelerations. The same driver board is used in all our galvo systems.


System Operation
The servo driver must be connected to a DC power supply, the galvo motor, and an input voltage source (the monitoring connection is optional). For continuous scanning applications, a function generator with a square or sine wave output is sufficient for scanning the galvo mirror over its entire range. For more complex scanning patterns, a programmable voltage source should be used. The ratio between the input voltage and mirror position is switchable, either 0.5, 0.8 or 1. When set to 0.8, the ±10 V input will rotate the mirror over its full range of ±12.5°. The control circuit also provides monitoring outputs that allow the user to track the position of the mirror. In addition, voltages proportional to the drive current being supplied to the motor and the difference between the command position and the actual position of the mirror are supplied by the control circuit.

Closed-Loop Mirror Positioning
The angular orientation (position) of the mirror is optically encoded using an array of photocells and a light source, both of which are integrated into the interior of the galvanometer housing. Each mirror orientation corresponds to a unique ratio of signals from the photodiodes, which allows for the closed-loop operation of the galvo mirror system.

The systems can be driven to scan their full mechanical range of ±12.5° at a frequency of 100 Hz when using a square wave control input voltage or at 350 Hz when using a sine wave. For a single small-angle step of 0.2°, it takes the mirror 300 μs to come to rest at the command position.
The scan frequency range is DC to 1 kHz and the angular resolution is 0.0008° (15 μrad).

Small Beam Diameter Galvanometer Systems

* 1D and 2D Scanning Galvo Mirror Systems
* Silver, Gold, Broadband (E02) and High Power Dual Band Coating Options
* Includes 1 or 2 Driver Cards for Single or Dual Mirror Systems, Respectively
* Includes Driver Card Heat Sink(s)
* Power Supply Not Included

Thorlabs Scanning Galvo Mirror Systems are available in single and dual axis configurations for small (

Small Beam Diameter Galvo System Packages

* Complete 1D and 2D Scanning 5 mm Galvo Mirror Packages
* Protected Silver Mirror Coating
* Other Coatings Available on Request
* Includes GVS001/GVS002 Galvo System + Power Supply, Mirror Heatsink, and Driver Card Cover
* Optically Encoded Mirror Position
* 99.9% Motor and Position Sensor Linearity
* Advanced Analog Control Circuit (Servo Driver) with Current Damping and Error Limiter

The GVSM001 and GVSM002 Galvo Mirror System Packages are complete 1D and 2D, scanning mirror systems for small diameter beams. These closed-loop systems are ideal for raster and vector scanning applications as well as some step-and-hold applications. The GVSM001 and GVSM002 packages include the GVS001 or GVS002 silver coated mirror systems described above, together with the GPS011 linear power supply, a GHS003 post mounting adapter and a GCE001 cover for the servo driver boards. Other coatings (e.g. gold or broadband) are available on request - please contact tech support for more details.

The power supply (GPS011) and additional mirror heatsink (GHS003), included in these packages, are highly recommended for rapid scanning and the most demanding applications where power supply stability and heat dissipation are needed. The power supply can power two 1D scanning mirrors or one 2D scanning mirror assembly, and can be powered by 115 VAC or 230/240 VAC.

 Small Beam Diameter Galvo System Accessories

In order to ease the integration of the Thorlabs GVSX01 and GVSX02 galvo systems into optical systems a range of accessories have been created. The accessories include a galvo mount heatsink, a linear power supply, 30 mm cage mounts and PY003 tip tilt platform adapters. Also included is an optional enclosure for the galvo driver cards.



The GHS003 galvo mirror heatsink attaches directly to the 1D and 2D mirror mounts to provide device cooling and alternate mounting options.

Heat from the galvo mirrors is typically dissipated through the normal mounting options, however for applications involving vigorous changing drive signals, we recommend using the GHS003 heat sink. Excess heat buildup will cause the galvo motor to fail or driver board thermal cut out to trip.



The GPS011 power supply is a low noise, linear supply designed to minimize electrical interference for maximum system resolution. The power supply is compatible with all our galvo systems and can power two server driver cards simultaneously. Two 2 m power cables are included.

The GPS011 delivers ±15 VDC at 3 A and can be powered by 115 VAC or 230/240 VAC. A standard switch mode power supply may be used for low demand applications.




The GCM001 cage system adapter is used to mount the GVSX01 single-axis galvo systems into a 30 mm cage system. The adapter also features four SM1 threads and an open bottom for further mounting options.

Note: The input and output are on the same plane.



Similarly, the GCM002 cage system adapter is used to mount the GVSX02 dual-axis galvo systems into a 30 mm cage system.The adapter also features two SM1 threads and an open bottom for further mounting options. A B1C cover is included with this adapter for light tight applications.

Note: The input and output are on different planes. Cage systems should be adapted accordingly.




The GCE001 is a convenient enclosure for servo driver cards. Simply bolt onto the servo driver bracket.

Note: This item is not compatible with early models of the servo driver card.



The GTT001 Tilt Platform Adapter allows the GVSX01 and GVSX02 Galvo Systems to be mounted on a PY003 Tilt Platform.




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