HomeProductsOptomechanicsOptomechanical DevicesGalvo Mirror Systems: Beam Diameter

Galvo Mirror Systems: Beam Diameter


Larger Beam Diameter Scanning Galvo Systems

  • For Larger (< 10 mm) Beam Diameters
  • Silver-Coated Mirrors
  • 1D and 2D Kits Available
  • Easy Integration into OEM Systems
  • Analog Control Electronics


  • Moving Magnet Motor Design for Faster Response
  • High-Precision Optical Mirror Position Detection
  • Analog PD Control Electronics with Current Damping
    and Error Limiter
  • Protected Silver Mirror Coating
  • Custom Coatings (e.g., Aluminum) Available upon Request

These high-speed Scanning Galvanometer Mirror Positioning Systems are designed for integration into OEM or custom laser beam steering applications with a beam diameter of


Key Specifications
Beam Diameter 10 mm (Max)
2-Axis System Beam Offset 15 mm
Wavelength Range (Ravg > 95%) 500 nm - 2.0 µm
Mirror Coating Protected Silver
Damage Threshold 3 J/cm2 at 1064 nm, 10 ns Pulse
Repeatability 15 μrad
Linearity 99.9%
Max Scan Angle
(Mechanical Angle)
(w/ 0.5 V/deg Scaling)
Full Scale Bandwidth 65 Hz Square Wave,
130 Hz Sine Wave
Small Angle (±0.2°) Bandwidth 1 kHz
Small Angle Step Response 400 µs
Optical Position Sensor Output 40 to 80 µA
Power Supply Requirements ±15 to ±18 VDC

Galvo Motor/Mirror Assembly
The galvo consists of a galvanometer-based scanning motor with an optical mirror mounted on the shaft and a detector that provides positional feedback to the control board. The moving magnet design for the GVS series of galvanometer motors was chosen over a stationary magnet and rotating coil design in order to provide the fastest response times and the highest system resonant frequency. The position of the mirror is encoded using an optical sensing system located inside of the motor housing.

Due to the large angular acceleration of the rotation shaft, the size, shape and inertia of the mirrors become significant factors in the design of high performance galvo systems. Furthermore, the mirror must remain rigid (flat) even when subjected to large accelerations. All these factors have been precisely balanced in our galvo systems in order to match the characteristics of the galvo motor and maximize performance of the system.

The mirrors are available from stock with a silver coating. Custom coatings (e.g., aluminum) are available on request.

Scanning Galvo Mirror Assembly and Driver Board
All Thorlabs scanning galvo mirror systems feature a mounted single- or dual-axis mirror/motor assembly and driver card(s). Shown to the right is the 10 mm 1D galvo mirror and driver card with heatsink. The mirror assembly features multiple mounting holes and a rotatable collar mount for the mirror/motor. A flying lead allows connection to the driver board. Please see below for additional mounting options and accessories.

Servo Driver Board
The Proportional Derivative (PD) servo driver circuit interprets the signals from the optical position detecting system inside the motor and then produces the drive voltage required to rotate the mirror to the desired position. The scanner uses a non-integrating, Class 0 servo that is ideal for use in applications that require vector positioning (e.g., laser marking), raster positioning (printing or scanning laser microscopy), and some step-and-hold applications. Furthermore, the proportional derivative controller gives excellent dynamic performance. The circuit includes an additional current term to ensure stability at high accelerations. The same driver board is used in all of our galvo systems.

System Operation

The servo driver must be connected to a DC power supply, the galvo motor, and an input voltage source (the monitoring connection is optional). For continuous scanning applications, a function generator with a square or sine wave output is sufficient for scanning the galvo mirror over its entire range. For more complex scanning patterns, a programmable voltage source should be used. The ratio between the input voltage and mirror position is switchable between 0.5, 0.8, and 1. For the GVS011 and GVS012 systems, the ±10 V input produces the full angular range of ±20° with a scaling factor of 0.5. The control circuit also provides monitoring outputs that allow the user to track the position of the mirror. In addition, voltages proportional to the drive current being supplied to the motor and the difference between the command position and the actual position of the mirror are supplied by the control circuit.

Closed-Loop Mirror Positioning
The angular orientation (position) of the mirror is optically encoded using an array of photocells and a light source, both of which are integrated into the interior of the galvanometer housing. Each mirror orientation corresponds to a unique ratio of signals from the photodiodes, which allows for the closed-loop operation of the galvo mirror system.

The GVS011 and GVS012 systems can be driven to scan their full ±20° range at a frequency of 65 Hz when using a square wave control input voltage and 130 Hz when using a sine wave. For a ±0.2° small angle, the step response is 400 µs. The maximum scan frequency is 1 kHz and the angular resolution is 0.0008° (15 μrad, with GPS001 Linear Power Supply).

Scan Lens Mounting Bracket
The GVS012(/M) two-channel galvo mirror pair is compatible with our GAS012 mounting bracket (sold below). This bracket allows the galvo mirrors to be mounted along with one of our F-Theta or Telecentric Scan Lenses (see photo to the right). The complete assembly can be easily integrated into a standard breadboard- or optical table-based optomechanical setup.

Galvo System Linear Power Supply

* Compatible With All Thorlabs Galvo Systems
* Low Noise, Linear Supply Minimizes Electrical Interference
* Capable of Powering Two Server Driver Cards Simultaneously

The GPS011 power supply is a low noise, linear supply designed to minimize electrical interference for maximum system resolution. The GPS011 delivers ±15 VDC at 3 A and can be powered by 115 VAC or 230/240 VAC. The power supply is compatible with all of our galvo systems and can power two server driver cards simultaneously. Two 2 m power cables are included.


As an alternative to the GPS011, a standard switch mode power supply may be used for low demand applications.

Galvo Mount Heatsink

* Provides Additional Cooling
* Attaches Directly to the 1D and 2D Mirror Mounts
* Convenient Post Adapter to Thorlabs’ 8-32 (M4) Threaded Posts

The GHS003 galvo mirror heatsink attaches directly to the 1D and 2D mirror mounts to provide device cooling and alternate mounting options.


Heat from the galvo mirrors is typically dissipated through the normal mounting options. However, applications involving rapidly changing drive signals can create excess heat buildup, causing the galvo motor to fail or driver board thermal cutout to trip. We recommend the GHS003 Heatsink for these cases. The heat sink also serves as a post adapter, allowing the GVS001 and GVS002 galvo mirror assembly to be mounted on our 8-32 (M4) threaded posts.

Cage Adapter for 2D 10 mm Galvo System

  • SM1-Threaded (1.035"-40) Input and Output Ports
  • Gasket Included for Light-Tight Applications
  • All Mounting Screws Supplied


The GCM012 Cage System Adapter is used to mount the GVS012 dual-axis galvo systems into a 30 mm cage system. The adapter features SM1-threaded (1.035"-40) input and output ports. A gasket is included for use in light-tight applications, and all mounting screws are supplied.


Note: The input and output ports are on different planes and are offset by 16.83 mm (0.66"). Cage systems should be adapted accordingly.

Mounting Bracket for GVS012(/M) Galvo Mirror and Scan Lenses

  • Mounting Bracket for Integrating our F-Theta and Telecentric Scan Lenses with our GVS012(/M) Large Beam Galvo Mirror Pair
  • Removable 30 mm Cage- and SM1 Thread-Compatible Input Plate
  • Thread Adapters (Sold Below) Required for Attaching All Scan Lenses
  • Compatible with Imperial or Metric Breadboards and Optical Tables


The GAS012 mounting bracket allows for the integration of our FTH100-1064, FTH160-1064, or FTH254-1064 F-Theta scan lenses or our LSM05 Telecentric Scan Lens with our GVS012 or GVS012/M galvanometer mirror pairs. It also allows the complete assembly to be integrated with optical table or breadboard-based optomechanical setups. To use the GAS012 mounting bracket, a thread adapter (also sold below) must also be purchased. This places the lens at the recommended distance from the second galvo mirror. See the table below for a description of which adapters are compatible with each scan lens.


The input light port is a plate with SM1 (1.035"-40) threading for Ø1" lens tube compatibility and four Ø6 mm cage rod holes for 30 mm cage system integration. The GAS012 bracket has a bottom mounting surface with eight #8 (M4) and nine 1/4" (M6) through holes, spaced at 12.6 mm (0.496") and 25.2 mm (0.99"), respectively, for compatibility with both imperial and metric breadboards and optical tables. When mounted, the GVS012(/M) galvo mirror pair does not sit directly on this surface, allowing all of the through holes to be used for table or breadboard mounting.

Mounting Bracket Item #GAS012
Thread Adapter Item #GAS0121GAS0122GAS0123
Compatible Scan Lens FTH100-1064
FTH254-1064 LSM05
Compatible Galvo Mirror System GVS012 or GVS012/M
Assembled System Photo
(Click for Details)
FTH160-1064 with GAs012 FTH160-1064 with GAs012 LSM05 with GAS012

Galvo Driver Card Cover


The GCE001 is a convenient enclosure for servo driver cards. Simply bolt it onto the servo driver bracket.


Note: This item is not compatible with early models of the servo driver card.



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